Seizures are caused by sudden activation of large number of brain cells at the same time. Tendency for recurrent seizure is called epilepsy. It is usually a disorder of childhood, but can occur at any age.
Seizures and Epilepsy causes:
Seizures and epilepsy can be caused by microscopic abnormality in the brain (e.g. developmentally abnormal brain circuitry, microscopic scars). Macroscopic abnormality are also responsible, especially after childhood (e.g. stroke, traumatic brain injury, brain tumors). Alcohol toxicity or withdrawal, several medications and electrolyte abnormalities are also common causes.
Your doctor can diagnose epilepsy by clinical history and exam. Sometimes brain imaging, blood tests and urine tests are required.
Seizures and Epilepsy Medications:
Medications are the mainstay treatment approach for epilepsy. Most commonly prescribed medications are levetiracetam, phenytoin, lamotrigine, lacosamide, oxcarbazepine, zonisamide, topiramate and valproic acid. Some patients may require combination of 2 or more anti-epileptic medications. Minority of patients with severe epilepsy may benefit from surgery as well.
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